How the USA and Russia Reached Nuclear Technology?
How the USA and Russia Reached Nuclear Technology?

How the USA and Russia Reached Nuclear Technology?

The most worrying part of the global arms race is the beginning of the production of nuclear weapon technologies.

The global arms race, which accelerated before the second world war started, caused the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union of the time, which is called the cold war.

The most worrying part of this competition is the production of nuclear weapon technologies.

For years after the end of the Second World War, there were efforts to manage competition between the US and the Soviet Union and to prevent the risk of nuclear war. For years after the end of the Second World War, there were efforts to manage competition between the US and the Soviet Union and to prevent the risk of nuclear war. However, the relations between the United States and Russia, the successor of the Soviet Union, have recently deteriorated. This situation has the potential to awaken the nuclear arms race again.

1945

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Smoke rises in Nagasaki, Japan, after the USA dropped an atomic bomb on August 9.

The Beginning of Nuclear Technology

In Los Alamos, New Mexico, one of the regions where he conducts US military research, the Manhattan Project, which he describes as top secret, is considered the peak of competition. It is known by everyone that the first tests of nuclear weapons were carried out in the secret facility here. In the following days of the tests, the US President Harry Truman informed the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin that he wanted to use an atomic bomb on Japan.

In August 1945, US bombers dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima at intervals of a few days in the center of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan. The USA killed hundreds of thousands of ordinary Japanese citizens living in the city center with this bomb. In early August, American warplanes drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing more than one hundred thousand Japanese people. With this destruction of the USA, which was considered a war crime but never held accountable, it enabled Japan to surrender in the second world war. After this event, the world witnessed the amazing power of Nuclear weapons and this technology continued to be developed.

1949

First Soviet Nuclear Test

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Yuliy Khariton, director of the Soviet A-bomb project, and the RDS-1, the Soviet Union’s first atomic bomb. Defense Technologies and Security Information Center, DTS Inform Ltd.

The Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon at a test center in Kazakhstan. US intelligence experts at the time estimated that the Soviet Union was at least 3 years away from obtaining nuclear technology.

1952 / 1955

Smoke rises in Nagasaki, Japan, after the USA dropped an atomic bomb on August 9.
In the photo here, testing of the first hydrogen bomb in the Pacific Ocean, a mushroom cloud rises over a coral island. It was said to be small in scale for the test that took place, but it completely sank the Elugelab island.

During the first test of a hydrogen bomb, a mushroom cloud rises above Enewetak, a coral island in the Pacific Ocean. The so-called Mike test completely destroyed the small island of Elugelab. Reuters

Next Generation Bombs

As global competition heats up, the United States and the Soviet Union compete to develop the next class of weapons known as thermonuclear or hydrogen bombs. In late 1952, US scientists detonated the first of these weapons on a coral island in the Marshall Islands, an explosion hundreds of times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. (Weeks ago, Britain tested its first nuclear weapon.) In another US test known as Castle Bravo in 1954, scientists miscalculated the yield and created a radioactive fallout that harmed many Marshall Islands residents. The Soviet Union tested its first thermonuclear device in November 1955. Soviet tests also had devastating health effects on Kazakhstan’s immediate residents.

1957

IAEA Established

Opening session of the International Atomic Energy Corporation Conference on 1 October 1957 in Vienna. AP Images
Opening session of the International Atomic Energy Corporation Conference on 1 October 1957 in Vienna. AP Images

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna as a forum for international cooperation on civil nuclear research. US President Dwight D. Eisenhower first called for the creation of such an institution in his Atoms for Peace speech at the UN General Assembly in 1953. The IAEA’s charter, unanimously approved by more than eighty countries, outlines a mission in three parts: safety, security, and technology transfer. The IAEA’s first security measures for civil nuclear facilities were created in 1961.

1957 – 1958

Sputnik Launches and Missile Race

A photograph of the Soviet satellite Sputnik I. AP Images
A photograph of the Soviet satellite Sputnik I. AP Images

The Soviet Union carried out the first successful test of the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), which appeared to hit US soil in October 1957. Days later, a modified version of the rocket launched Sputnik 1, the first man-made satellite. into orbit. The Soviets’ rapid technical achievements terrify the US leaders, heighten the specter of the first attack and the militarization of space. The Atlas missile program in the United States made its first full-range ICBM flight in late 1958, the same year Washington founded NASA, a civil space exploration agency.

1958 – 1960

As part of Operation Hardtack 1, the US conducts nearly three dozen nuclear tests in 1958 to prove sites in the Pacific Ocean. US Department of Defense
As part of Operation Hardtack 1, the US conducts nearly three dozen nuclear tests in 1958 to prove sites in the Pacific Ocean. US Department of Defense

Testing Boom

1958 was the most active year of nuclear testing ever, with the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States detonating more than a hundred devices in total. The three countries then voluntarily paused the test for several years while discussing a permanent test ban. In the early 1960s, France carried out its first test, becoming the world’s fourth nuclear power.

1962

A Russian ship loaded with missiles in Port Casilda, Cuba, on November 6, 1962. US Air Force
A Russian ship loaded with missiles in Port Casilda, Cuba, on November 6, 1962. US Air Force

Cuban missile crisis

In October, when US reconnaissance flights revealed that the Soviets were building secret missile bases in Cuba, the Cold War tension almost sprang into a nuclear conflict. President John F. Kennedy warns Moscow of a “full retaliation response” if it launches a nuclear attack on any country in the Western Hemisphere from Cuba. After a thirteen-day stalemate between the superpowers, including Cuba’s US naval quarantine, the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw its missiles. In contrast, the US promises not to invade Cuba and secretly agree to pull their nuclear missiles from Turkey.

1963

President John F. Kennedy prepares to sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union in 1963. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis/Getty Images
President John F. Kennedy prepares to sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union in 1963. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis/Getty Images

Limited Test Ban Agreement

After years of repeated negotiations, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States agreed to ban nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, space, and underwater, and to significantly restrict underground testing. The Limited Test Ban Treaty reflects growing international concerns about the dangers of nuclear fallout. To reduce the risk of accidental war, a high-speed “hotline” was established, linking the leaders of the Soviet and US governments. France and China, which will become the world’s fifth nuclear power next year, are not parties to the agreement.

1968

On the left, Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko followed in Moscow on July 1, 1968.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Victory

More states’ quest for nuclear weapons leads to calls for an international framework to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In 1959, discussions about a treaty started at the United Nations. After multiple drafts, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for general disarmament on 1 July 1968. China and France did not participate until 1992. Non-nuclear signatories pledged to stop acquiring nuclear weapons. Today, 190 countries are party to the NPT, making it the country most dependent on the arms control agreement. Only India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, and South Sudan are not included in the deal – the top four possess or are suspected of possessing nuclear weapons.

1969 – 1979

Détente

On June 21, 1973, US President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev pledged to permanently limit their countries’ offensive nuclear arsenals. AP Images

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, there is a general breakdown in US-Soviet relations, and this ushers in a promising era of nuclear weapons control that most likely emerged at the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks or SALT. The two sides signed a pair of groundbreaking agreements in 1972: the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Agreement restricted countries’ deployment of missile defense systems to their national capitals and an ICBM site, and the number of nuclear missiles SALT I silos and submarine-launched missile tubes for a five-year period. for a period of time. SALT I does not refer to strategic bombers or warhead arsenals. Meanwhile, Washington’s rapprochement with Beijing for a decade stunned the Soviet leadership, whose relations with Mao Zedong’s communist regime were eroding.

1979 – 1980

SALT II and the Invasion of Afghanistan

After seven years of war, Soviet tanks start rolling out from their forward operating bases in Afghanistan on October 15, 1986. Jack Redden/UPI/Reuters

In June 1979, the US and the Soviet Union signed a SALT II agreement that would impose further restrictions on their nuclear weapons and launch platforms, including strategic bombers, and lay down specific notification requirements and new test bans. But in December, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, launching a nine-year war in which its forces and allied Afghan communists fought U.S.-backed mujahideen resistance. US President Jimmy Carter responds to the Soviet invasion by asking the Senate to freeze the evaluation of the SALT II agreement and pull the country from the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.

1981 – 1983

A Pershing II test missile lifts off from Fort Bliss, Texas, in 1983. AP Images

In its first year, the Ronald Reagan administration focuses on modernizing the US strategic nuclear arsenal and accelerating a general military build-up. However, in November, President Reagan offered the Soviet Union the so-called zero option, where all Soviet and US medium-range nuclear missiles would be removed from facilities around the world. The following June, Reagan proposes a Strategic Arms Reduction Agreement, or START, looking for deep cuts in warhead counts and delivery vehicles. Soviet concerns grew as the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) began deploying the Pershing II missile system in Western Europe.

1983

President Reagan addresses the nation on March 23, 1983. Dennis Cook/AP Images
President Reagan addresses the nation on March 23, 1983. Dennis Cook/AP Images

Reagan’s ‘Evil Empire’ and ‘Star Wars’ Speeches

On March 8, President Reagan gave a speech in which he referred to the Soviet Union as “an evil empire” and warned against “calming” and “the so-called nuclear freezing solutions some have proposed.” In a speech on March 23, he announced a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to create a space-based ballistic missile shield that could protect against a Soviet nuclear attack. The SDI seems to mark a major shift in the US stance that has so far adopted the doctrine of mutually assured destruction, or MAD, to maintain strategic stability. Critics say SDI would violate the ABM agreement if it is technologically feasible. Meanwhile, the Soviet military is increasingly wary of the widening of the technological gap with the West.

1986

U.S. President Reagan with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev at Hofdi House during the Reykjavik Summit in Iceland. Reagan Library
U.S. President Reagan with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev at Hofdi House during the Reykjavik Summit in Iceland. Reagan Library

Reykjavik Summit

In October 1986, Soviet leaders Mikhail Gorbachev and Reagann held an extraordinary short-term meeting in Iceland, and the two leaders agreed to nearly abolish their nuclear weapons in almost a decade. (The two previously discussed arms control in Geneva, where “nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought.” While the US advocates a broad interpretation that allows space-based missile defense technology to be developed and tested, it is a strict interpretation of the ABM agreement that limits research and development to laboratories. Although they failed to reach agreement in Reykjavik, the measures were later discussed that would pave the way for nuclear diplomacy.

1987

A Soviet inspector examines a BGM-109G Tomahawk ground-launched cruise missile prior to its destruction in October 1988. MSgt. Jose Lopez Jr./Department of Defense
A Soviet inspector examines a BGM-109G Tomahawk ground-launched cruise missile prior to its destruction in October 1988. MSgt. Jose Lopez Jr./Department of Defense

Medium Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

Gorbachev and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, agreeing to abolish their countries’ ground-launched, medium-range nuclear missiles (ranging from about 300 to 3,400 miles) by 1991. This is the first treaty to reduce nuclear weapons, as opposed to a ceiling, and offers comprehensive verification measures. A turning point for the talks came after Gorbachev agreed to separate the INF from broader strategic talks involving US Soviet efforts to curb SDI development, unlike the Reykjavik stance.

1989 – 1991

Former U.S. President Reagan on Potsdamer Platz in East Berlin on September 12, 1990. Reuters
Former U.S. President Reagan on Potsdamer Platz in East Berlin on September 12, 1990. Reuters

End of the Cold War and START Signed

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, which marked the end of the Cold War and the beginning of communism in Europe, the US-Soviet disarmament talks are accelerating. The following year, East and West Germany reunite into one state that retains NATO membership. In July 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union just months later, US President George H.W. Bush and Gorbachev signed the START agreement. The agreement was successful as the parties, both sides with more than ten thousand deployed warheads in 1990, pledged to reduce their arsenals to well below six thousand by 2009.

1992

Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and General Colin Powell speak about reductions in short-range nuclear weapons. Reuters
Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and General Colin Powell speak about reductions in short-range nuclear weapons. Reuters

In March, the United States, newly independent Russia, and twenty-five other countries signed the Open Skies Treaty, allowing members to conduct planned reconnaissance flights over another’s territory. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine signed the Lisbon Protocol of the START agreement in May, pledging new independent states to transfer their former Soviet nuclear arsenals to Russia and join the NPT as non-nuclear weapons states. The US government is providing billions of dollars to finance the nuclear decommissioning process through the Cooperative Threat Reduction program. Arms delivery was completed at the end of 1996.

1993

Russian President Boris Yeltsin, right, toasts U.S. President George H.W. Bush after signing the START II treaty in Moscow on January 3, 1993. Liu Heung Shing/AP Images
Russian President Boris Yeltsin, right, toasts U.S. President George H.W. Bush after signing the START II treaty in Moscow on January 3, 1993. Liu Heung Shing/AP Images

START II Signed But Not Implemented

The US and Russia signed START II, which aims to limit the number of strategic nuclear weapons the parties can hold to 3,500 respectively. However, the approval process will be complicated by many factors and will be dragged into the next millennium. The treaty never comes into force.

1997

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign a joint declaration detailing future reductions in nuclear forces. Reuters
U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign a joint declaration detailing future reductions in nuclear forces. Reuters

ABM Agreement Amended

US President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a joint statement in March to redefine and strengthen the 1972 ABM agreement, distinguishing between strategic and non-strategic or theater, missile defense systems. Russia ratified the agreement in 2000, but the measure was never sent to the US Senate. In 2001, President George W. Bush announced that he would withdraw the US from the ABM and effectively end the deal.

2000

Russian military officials peer into an opened silo of an intercontinental ballistic Topol-M missile at an undisclosed location. AP Images
Russian military officials peer into an opened silo of an intercontinental ballistic Topol-M missile at an undisclosed location. AP Images

Missile Data Sharing Proposal

The United States and Russia are proposing to establish an early warning, pre-launch notification system to reduce the risk of accidental missile launches, based on warnings implemented in past gun control agreements. The proposal was first published in 1998 by Yeltsin, who suggested that the data sharing center should be “on Russian territory”. Washington and Moscow signed a memorandum of understanding on the center in 2000. However, the project was delayed and was never implemented for various reasons, including Russia’s concerns about US missile defense research.

2002

President George W. Bush announces on December 13, 2001, that the United States will withdraw from the ABM Treaty. Kevin Lamarque/Reuters
President George W. Bush announces on December 13, 2001, that the United States will withdraw from the ABM Treaty. Kevin Lamarque/Reuters

SORT and Missile Defense

In May, President Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the Strategic Attack Reduction Treaty (SORT), also known as the Moscow Treaty, and agreed to significantly reduce the number of strategic nuclear warheads deployed within a decade. Critics say the deal that effectively replaced START II is too vague and lacks adequate adjustment measures. (SORT takes effect the year after congressional approval.) In June, President Bush withdrew the US from the EIC, claiming that the US limited its ability to develop missile defense against terrorists and supposed rogue states such as Iran and the North. Korea. The movement angers Russia, which sees US foreign policy with growing anxiety after 9/11.

2007

A NATO air-defense base in the Czech Republic. Alexandra Mlejnkova/CTK/AP
A NATO air-defense base in the Czech Republic. Alexandra Mlejnkova/CTK/AP

A Missile Shield Fracas

The US plan to deploy anti-missile systems in the Czech Republic and Poland asks Moscow, who sees the shield as a threat to its strategic nuclear deterrent. Washington says the system is meant to defend against potential Iranian and North Korean attacks. Putin proposes to jointly develop a missile shield based on radar facilities in South Russia and Azerbaijan at the Group Eighth (G8) summit talks in Germany in June.

2009

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Geneva, pressing the “reset button” in relations between the countries. Fabrice Coffrini/Reuters
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Geneva, pressing the “reset button” in relations between the countries. Fabrice Coffrini/Reuters

The Obama ‘Reset’

President Barack Obama is trying to create a new style for the US to engage with the world by delivering a series of high-profile foreign policy speeches in Prague, Cairo and Moscow. He says the United States has a “moral responsibility” to lead the world in nuclear disarmament and has pledged to negotiate new strategic arms reductions with Moscow. As part of this effort, Obama says, the United States and Russia must “reset” their relationship so that they can focus on common challenges such as non-proliferation, the fight against terrorism, and the global economic recession. Later that year, Obama said the United States would change its Europe-based missile defense system and draw up plans to build permanent areas in the Czech Republic and Poland.

2010

U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev sign the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Prague on April 8, 2010. Jason Reed/Reuters
U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev sign the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Prague on April 8, 2010. Jason Reed/Reuters

New START

In April, Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a new strategic arms reduction agreement in Prague, replacing the first START agreement that ended in 2009. arsenals. The package introduces a 30 percent reduction in deployed warheads and lower limits on deployed and non-deployed intercontinental ballistic missile launchers, submarine-launched ballistic missile launchers, and heavy bombers equipped for nuclear weapons. The treaty was ratified by the US Senate in a resolute two-party vote. The Russian parliament approved this in early 2011.

2014

A Russian serviceman carries two rocket launchers near the Crimean city of Simferopol, March 2014. Baz Ratner/Reuters
A Russian serviceman carries two rocket launchers near the Crimean city of Simferopol, March 2014. Baz Ratner/Reuters

Ukraine Crisis

After the political turmoil in the former Soviet Republic dismissed the pro-Russian president, Russian security forces occupied the Ukraine’s Russian-dominated ethnic Crimea, Crimea. With its attack on Crimea and its subsequent annexation, Russia violated its previous commitments to respect Ukraine’s territorial integrity, raising deep concerns about its commitments to arms control. Moscow has also begun to arm and harbor pro-Russian separatists in southeastern Ukraine. The attack is widely condemned by Western powers, which have imposed economic sanctions. The United States also supports Ukraine with military aid. The conflict ends the US-Russia reset and heralds a renewed era of geopolitical rivalry.

2018

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announces that the United States will withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Eric Baradat/AFP/Getty Images
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announces that the United States will withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Eric Baradat/AFP/Getty Images

USA Withdraws From INF Deal

In August, the Donald J. Trump administration announced that it would withdraw the United States from the agreement banning the Cold War-era medium-range, ground-launched nuclear missiles. For years the United States claimed that Russia had tested and deployed a cruise missile prohibited by the treaty, Moscow denied this claim. The US withdrawal, which took effect in August 2019, is backed by NATO allies, and Russia and Ukraine come amid a series of disputes over Syria and interference in US elections.

2020

A U.S. Air Force member takes aerial photographs while flying an observation mission. Perry Aston/USAF
A U.S. Air Force member takes aerial photographs while flying an observation mission. Perry Aston/USAF

Open Sky Under Threat

It withdrew from the United States Open Skies Treaty in November. The Trump administration claims that Russia has been abusing the deal for years. Many NATO members regret the US withdrawal from the Open Skies, which they say is beneficial despite Russia’s incompatibility.

2021

A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile is driven during the Victory Day Parade in Red Square in Moscow, June 2020. Mikhail Voskresenskiy/Reuters
A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile is driven during the Victory Day Parade in Red Square in Moscow, June 2020. Mikhail Voskresenskiy/Reuters

New START Extended

Days before the end of the 2011 agreement, the United States and Russia agreed to extend the New START for another five years, maintaining verifiable borders on their long-range nuclear weapons arsenal. The deal is one of Joe Biden’s first major foreign policy moves as US president. The Trump administration has attempted to get a shorter extension of the agreement to address China’s nuclear weapons in recent months and has failed.